The following are definitions of key financial measures used to evaluate ABB’s operating performance. These financial measures are referred to in this Annual Report and are not defined under United States generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP).
While ABB’s management believes that the financial measures defined below are useful in evaluating ABB’s operating results, these measures should be considered as supplemental in nature and not as a substitute for the related financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
For a full reconciliation of ABB’s non-GAAP measures, please refer to Supplemental Reconciliations and Definitions, ABB Q4 2015 Financial Information.
Comparable growth rates (previously ‘like-for-like growth rates’)
Growth rates for certain key figures may be presented and discussed on a “comparable” basis. The comparable growth rate measures growth on a constant currency basis. Since we are a global company, the comparability of our operating results reported in U.S. dollars is affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. We calculate the impacts from foreign currency fluctuations by translating the current-year periods’ reported key figures into U.S. dollar amounts using the exchange rates in effect for the comparable periods in the previous year.
Comparable growth rates also adjust for changes in our business portfolio. The adjustment for portfolio changes is calculated as follows: where the results of any business acquired or divested have not been consolidated and reported for the entire duration of both the current and comparable periods, the reported key figures of such business are adjusted to exclude the relevant key figures of any corresponding quarters which are not comparable when computing the comparable growth rate. In addition, certain other portfolio changes which do not qualify as divestments are treated in a similar manner to divestments. We do not adjust for portfolio changes where the business acquired or divested has annual revenues of less than $50 million.
Operational EBITA margin
Operational EBITA margin is Operational EBITA as a percentage of Operational revenues.
Operational earnings before interest, taxes and acquisition-related amortization (Operational EBITA) represents Income from operations excluding acquisition-related amortization (as defined below), restructuring and restructuring-related expenses, gains and losses from sale of businesses, acquisition-related expenses and certain non-operational items, as well as foreign exchange/commodity timing differences in income from operations consisting of: (i) unrealized gains and losses on derivatives (foreign exchange, commodities, embedded derivatives), (ii) realized gains and losses on derivatives where the underlying hedged transaction has not yet been realized, and (iii) unrealized foreign exchange movements on receivables/payables (and related assets/liabilities).
Amortization expense on intangibles arising upon acquisitions.
Operational revenues are total revenues adjusted for foreign exchange/commodity timing differences in total revenues of: (i) unrealized gains and losses on derivatives, (ii) realized gains and losses on derivatives where the underlying hedged transaction has not yet been realized, and (iii) unrealized foreign exchange movements on receivables (and related assets).
Cash return on invested capital (CROI)
Cash return on invested capital is calculated as Adjusted cash return divided by Capital invested.
Adjusted cash return
Adjusted cash return is calculated as the sum of (i) net cash provided by operating activities, (ii) interest paid and (iii) estimate to annualize/eliminate the net cash provided by operating activities of certain acquisitions / (divestments).
Adjusted total fixed assets
Adjusted total fixed assets is the sum of (i) property, plant and equipment, net, (ii) goodwill, (iii) other intangible assets, net, and iv) investments in equity-accounted companies less v) deferred tax liabilities recognized in certain acquisitions.
Net working capital
Net working capital is the sum of (i) receivables, net, (ii) inventories, net, and (iii) prepaid expenses; less (iv) accounts payable, trade, (v) billings in excess of sales, (vi) advances from customers, and (vii) other current liabilities (excluding primarily: (a) income taxes payable, (b) current derivative liabilities, (c) pension and other employee benefits, and (d) payables under the share buyback program); and including the amounts related to these accounts which have been presented as either assets or liabilities held for sale.
Capital invested is the sum of (i) Adjusted total fixed assets, (ii) Net working capital and (iii) Accumulated depreciation and amortization.
Free cash flow conversion to net income
Free cash flow conversion to net income is calculated as Free cash flow divided by Net income attributable to ABB.
Free cash flow (FCF)
Free cash flow is calculated as net cash provided by operating activities adjusted for: (i) purchases of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, (ii) proceeds from sales of property, plant and equipment, and (iii) changes in financing and other non-current receivables, net (included in other investing activities).