Corporate and Other

Income (loss) from operations for Corporate and Other was as follows:

($ in millions)

2015

2014

2013

Corporate headquarters and stewardship

(365)

(369)

(372)

Corporate research and development

(144)

(174)

(187)

Corporate real estate

50

44

49

White Collar Productivity program costs

(130)

Other

(21)

(70)

(140)

Total Corporate and Other

(610)

(569)

(650)

In 2015, 2014 and 2013, Corporate headquarters and stewardship costs were maintained at the same level.

In 2015, Corporate research and development costs totaled $144 million, lower than in 2014. In 2014, Corporate research and development costs totaled $174 million, lower than in 2013.

Corporate real estate primarily includes the income from property rentals and gains from the sale of real estate properties. In 2015, 2014 and 2013, income from operations in Corporate real estate includes gains of $26 million, $17 million and $23 million, respectively, from the sales of real estate property in various countries.

In 2015, we recorded a total of $130 million in “Corporate and Other” for both restructuring and related expenses as well as program implementation costs for our White Collar Productivity program. For further information on our White Collar Productivity program see “Restructuring and other cost savings initiatives” below.

“Other” consists of operational costs of our Global Treasury Operations, operating income or loss in non-core businesses and certain other charges such as costs and penalties associated with legal cases, environmental expenses and impairment charges related to investments. In 2015, “Other” declined primarily due to a reduction of insurance-related provisions for self-insured risks. In 2014, “Other” included primarily lower charges in connection with legal compliance cases and lower environmental expenses compared to 2013. In 2013, “Other” included primarily certain legal compliance cases, certain environmental expenses, acquisition-related expenses, the loss on sale of a non-core business and the impairment of certain investments.