Capital expenditures

Total capital expenditures for property, plant and equipment and intangible assets (excluding intangibles acquired through business combinations) amounted to $876 million, $1,026 million and $1,106 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. In 2015, 2014 and 2013, capital expenditures were 24 percent, 21 percent and 16 percent lower, respectively, than depreciation and amortization (excluding acquisition-related amortization, capital expenditures were 3 percent, 11 percent and 19 percent higher, respectively, than depreciation and amortization).

Capital expenditures in 2015 remained at a significant level in mature markets, reflecting the geographic distribution of our existing production facilities. Capital expenditures in Europe and North America in 2015 were driven primarily by upgrades and maintenance of existing production facilities, mainly in the United States, Sweden, Switzerland and Germany. Capital expenditures in emerging markets were highest in China, Poland, India and Brazil. Capital expenditures in emerging markets were made primarily to increase production capacity by investment in new or expanded facilities. The share of emerging markets capital expenditures as a percentage of total capital expenditures in 2015, 2014 and 2013 was 31 percent, 29 percent and 33 percent, respectively.

At December 31, 2015, construction in progress for property, plant and equipment was $559 million, mainly in Sweden, the United States, China, Switzerland and Germany. At December 31, 2014, construction in progress for property, plant and equipment was $653 million, mainly in Sweden, the United States, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia and China, while at December 31, 2013, construction in progress for property, plant and equipment was $645 million, mainly in Sweden, the United States, Switzerland, Germany and Brazil.

Our capital expenditures relate primarily to property, plant and equipment. For 2016, we estimate the expenditures for property, plant and equipment will be higher than our annual total for depreciation and amortization (excluding acquisition-related amortization).